CHEMISTRY EXPLAINED is a complete, 550-page introductory textbook with all the bells and whistles used in a real college course for liberal-arts students, a course that Prof. Wolke taught at the University of Pittsburgh.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with new terms, questions and problems, and recommended readings.
CHAPTER 1: SCIENCE, CHEMISTRY, SOCIETY, AND YOU
1-1 What are we doing here?
Reasons for taking a chemistry course.
1-2 The two cultures: “those scientists” and you
Survival in a technological world.
1-3 Science or technology: Who’s the big, bad wolf?
Pure science, applied science, and technology. Who deserves the credit? Who deserves the blame?
1-4 Science: Why bother?
Why society engages in scientific research.
1-5 Support of basic science: Who pays the bills?
The expenses of scientific research. Government laboratories. Research proposals. Public support of science.
1-6 Technology assessment: there are no unmixed blessings
Societal problems brought about by technology. Pollution, mineral resources, energy, drugs, and safety.
1-7 Chemistry: the all-pervasive science
Definition of chemistry. Chemical products in everyday surroundings. The fields of chemistry. The Nobel Prizes in chemistry. Why study chemistry?
1-8 Controversy among scientists: science friction
Conflicting conclusions. The “Science Court.”
1-9 Your own personal survival kit
How to succeed in a chemistry course.
CHAPTER 2: THE TOOLS OF PURE SCIENCE
2-1 Chemistry is an experimental science. But what is an Experiment?
Asking questions of nature.
2-2 Measurement: Can’t we do anything right?
The variables of an experiment. Accuracy of a measurement. Statistical data.
2-3 Units: amounts of space, matter, and time
The need for a uniform language of measurement.
2-4 Why are English units bad?
English vs. metric.
2-5 Metric units in a nutshell
Basic units. Bigger and smaller units. SI units.
2-6 Conversion factors: a powerful tool in chemistry
The method of conversion factors (factor-label method).
2-7 Temperature: How hot is hot? How cool is cool?
Kinetic energy. Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin. Temperature vs. heat.
2-8 Mathematics vs. arithmetic: on ratios and densities
Extrapolation. Indirect measurement. Percent and ppm. Density.
2-9 More arithmetic: huge numbers, tiny numbers, and the cost of science
Exponential numbers. Multiplying and dividing exponential numbers. Logarithmic scales. The range of scientific observation. Computers.
2-10 The mental tools: hypotheses, theories, and all that
Accidental discoveries. The scientific method. Great science and unimaginative science.
2-11 Conservation laws: mass, energy, and Einstein
Laws of nature. Conservation laws. Conservation of mass-energy. Calculating mass and energy equivalents.
2-12 The two kinds of energy: “can do” and “is doing”
Potential energy and kinetic energy.
2-13 Sharpening your tools
How to win at poker, in scientific research, and in a chemistry course.
CHAPTER 3: WHAT IS EVERYTHING MADE OF? ATOMS AND MOLECULES
3-1 The states of matter: you can’t drink a rock
Solids, liquids, and gases. Physical and chemical changes. Greek atomism.
Dalton’s atomic theory.
3-3 The elements: 106 atomically pure materials
Elements. Chemical symbols. Abundances of the elements.
3-4 Let’s make water
Specific substances. Chemical compounds. A chemical reaction.
3-5 Molecules: atoms in wedlock
How molecules are formed. Chemical formulas. Atomic groupings. Molecular elements. Differences among compounds. The number of compounds known.
3-6 Chemical reactions: the atomic hustle
How chemical reactions take place. The energy of a chemical reaction.
3-7 Chemical compounds: How much of each element?
Conservation of atoms. The constant composition of compounds. Atomic weights. Percent composition.
3-8 The fluoridation of drinking water
The composition of teeth. The social issues in water fluoridation. The chemical issues in water fluoridation. Effects of various amounts of fluorine.
3-9 On phosphates, fertilizers, and farming
Organic farming. Amounts of nutrients in fertilizers.
3-10 Mixtures: the “everything else” besides elements and compounds
Air. Alloys. Other kinds of mixtures.
3-11 Formulas, atomic weights, and percent composition: buy any two and get the third
Three related characteristics of compounds. The chemical determination of atomic
3-12 Can we see atoms?
The field-ion microscope. What “seeing” means. The electron microscope.
3-13 How do you weigh an atom?
Accurate atomic weights. The mass spectrometer. Atomic weights from nuclear processes.
3-14 Isotopes, Dalton! You forgot isotopes!
The standard atom for atomic weights. Stable isotopes. The hydrogen isotopes. Averaged atomic weights. Separated isotopes.
3-15 Counting atoms and molecules: from one atom to 600 billion trillion atoms in a single bound
The mole. Avogadro’s number. Amounts of a substance. What a chemical formula tells.
3-16 Amounts of stuff: a summary
Conversions among numbers of particles, masses, and volumes.
3-17 A close look at a dose of penicillin
An antibiotic. Milligrams, moles, molecules, and percent of an element.
3-18 Atoms: fact or faith?
The strength of a belief.
CHAPTER 4: WHAT ARE ATOMS MADE OF? ELECTRONS AND NUCLEI 101
4-1 Does air conduct electricity?
What’s different about atoms, besides weight. Electricity. Conductors and nonconductors. An experiment with air. Discovering the electron. What electricity is.
4-2 Electrons everywhere
Mobile electrons. How much voltage makes electrons flow? Static electricity. How to generate an electrical potential.
4-3 Mass and charge: portrait of an electron
Why electrons are negative. The electron’s mass and charge.
4-4 The discovery of the nucleus: what one can learn by throwing rocks
The atom’s positive charge. The failure of common sense. Rutherford’s scattering experiment. The atomic nucleus. The nuclear charge.
4-5 On periods (dots), periods (menstrual), and periods (atomic properties)
Cyclic ups and downs. Similarities among the elements. Ionization. Multiatom ions. Ionization energies. Periodic behavior.
4-6 The periodic table: the chemist’s bible
Features of the periodic table. Metals. Transition metals. Nonmetals.
4-7 The arrangement of electrons in atoms: it’s a strange, small world
The laws that submicroscopic particles follow. Electron shells. Pauli’s exclusion principle. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Quanta. Particles and waves.
4-8 Atomic spectra: on ghosts, signs, and things that go boomp in the night
The excitation and deexcitation of electrons in atoms. Neon signs and mercury vapor lamps. Sparks. Fireworks and colored flames.
4-9 The periodic table explained: the four S’s
The kinds of energy an atom’s electron can have. How the elements’ periodic properties come about.
4-10 Are atoms different shapes?
The shapes of atoms’ electron clouds.
4-11 Atomic spectroscopy: jumping electrons in everyday life.
Wavelengths and frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Nuclear, atomic, and molecular spectroscopy. Spectrographic analysis.
4-12 Lasers: what they do and how they work
Fluorescence. Stimulated emission. Coherent radiation.
CHAPTER 5: THE TINY BUT POWERFUL NUCLEUS
5-1 What are nuclei made of? Protons and neutrons
The proton. The neutron. The nucleon number.
5-2 The subnuclear zoo
The density of atomic nuclei. Other subnuclear particles. Nucleons.
5-3 Radioactivity: What Is it?
Unstable and stable nuclei. Alpha emission. Nuclear equations. Beta emission. Gamma emission.
5-4 Synthetic elements: filling in the gaps
The missing elements: Tc, Pm, and At. Nuclear reactions. The discovery of technetium.
5-5 Nuclear machines: how to smash an atom
Particle accelerators. Nuclear chemistry.
5-6 More synthetic elements: beyond uranium
The discovery of neptunium. The transuranium elements.
5-7 Still more synthetic elements: superheavy ones?
The search for superheavy elements.
5-8 Radioactivity: the long and the short of it
Stable and unstable nuclei. Half-life.
5-9 The radioactive decay law: the photographer’s friend
A simple form of the radioactive decay law.
5-10 Our thyroid glands: underactive, overactive, and radioactive
Thyroxine. Iodized salt. Using the decay law equation.
5-11 Radiocarbon: how to date a mummy
The principles of radiocarbon dating.
5-12 What radiation does in matter—and in people
The penetration and ionization of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. Radiation shielding. Effects of radiation on living tissue. Radiation detectors.
5-13 Tracers: tying tags on atoms and molecules
Tagged molecules. Kidney stones. Organ scans.
5-14 Diagnosis, therapy, and sterilization: the good side of radiation
Hard and soft X rays. Radiation therapy. Preservation of food.
5-15 The hazards of radiation
The rem: a unit of radiation harm. The effects on humans of large amounts of radiation. Natural environmental radiation.
5-16 Where does nuclear energy come from?
The exact masses of atoms. Nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion.
5-17 Nuclear fusion: the ultimate answer to our energy problems
Some fusion reactions. Fusion bombs and fusion power.
5-18 How to make an atomic bomb or a nuclear reactor, but not both at the same time
The nuclear fission chain reaction. How a nuclear reactor works.
5-19 Fission and fussin’: the nuclear power controversy
The five major issues in nuclear reactor safety.
CHAPTER 6: CHEMICAL BONDING: HOW ATOMS STICK TOGETHER
6-1 It’s gotta be the electrons
Valence electrons and core electrons. Octets of electrons.
6-2 Electronegativity: metals, nonmetals, and transition metals
Cations and anions. Metals and nonmetals. Electronegativity.
6-3 The ionic bond: opposites attract
The ionic bond. Crystals. Crystal models. X-ray diffraction. Ions in solids, liquids, and gases.
6-4 The covalent bond: Likes can attract also!
The covalent bond. Multiple covalent bonds. Carbon’s tetrahedral bonding. Structures of diamond and graphite.
6-5 The polar covalent bond: an in-between situation
Polar covalent bonds. Dipoles. The shape of the water molecule.
6-6 Multiatom ions: atomic groupies
The electron structures and charges of multiatomic ions.
6-7 What’s in a name? Well, what’s in the compound?
Names of some inorganic compounds.
6-8 Cyanide: life’s little on-off switch
Cyanides. Cyanide poisoning. Inorganic chemical names.
6-9 Taking stock of bonds
Resonance. Rare-gas compounds. Formulas of compounds. Representations of molecules.
6-10 Intermolecular attractions: milder than real bonds
Dipole-dipole attraction. Hydrogen bonding. Van der Waals forces.
6-11 Molecular spectroscopy: what molecules do for excitement
Molecular rotations and vibrations.
6-12 The greenhouse effect: Why is it getting warm in here?
Why greenhouses are warm. Combustion and oxidation. CO, in the atmosphere. What’s currently known and unknown about the greenhouse effect.
CHAPTER 7: CHEMICAL REACTIONS: THE RESHUFFLING OF ATOMS
7-1 Chemical equations: So what else is new?
Balanced chemical equations. Realistic chemical equations. The products of
7-2 That old devil, “how much?”
The amounts of reactants and products in chemical reactions. The nature of a reaction vs. the amount of a reaction.
7-3 Energy: the invisible but ever-present product or reactant
Bond energies. Heat of combustion. The calorimeter. Nutritional Calories and
7-4 Energy and entropy: Will it go or won’t it?
Spontaneous processes. Entropy. Free energy.
7-5 Reaction speeds: slow, fast, and outta my way!
Fast oxidations and slow oxidations. Inherent speed of a reaction. Changing the speed of a reaction. Concentration. The effect of temperature.
7-6 Catalysts: “I’ll be glad ta help ya out, but I don’t wanna get involved!”
Enzymes. Fixation of nitrogen. The Haber process. Catalytic converters.
7-7 Winning metals: the ages of civilization
Ores. The Bronze Age. The Iron Age. The Hall process for making aluminum. Electrolysis. Catalyzing the oxidation of aluminum.
7-8 Chemical equilibrium: a submicroscopic two-way street
Chemical equilibrium. Le Chateller’s principle.
CHAPTER 8: ENERGY, FUELS, AND CIVILIZATION
8-1 Energy: getting on familiar terms
Energy and power. Electric light bulbs. The energies and powers of common processes.
8-2 Energy: Who needs it?
Energy uses in the U.S.: Heating-cooling, transportation, and the manufacturing of metals, nonmetals, and chemicals.
8-3 Even energy costs energy!
The energy costs of producing energy.
8-4 The energy rat race: from animals to atoms
Muscles. The water wheel. The windmill. The steam engine. The nuclear reactor. The fusion reactor.
8-5 Fuels: burn, baby, burn
Energy from trash. Energy from wood. The history of fuels in the United States.
8-6 Fossil fuels: there’s no fuel like an old fuel
Petroleum and natural gas. Peat, lignite, coal, and coke. Sulfur in coal.
8-7 Hydrocarbons: chains of C’s and H’s
Carbon atom chains. The saturated hydrocarbons.
8-8 Separating the molecules in petroleum: fractional distillation
Physical states of the alkanes. Fractional distillation. Petrochemicals. Lubrication.
8-9 Breaking down and reshaping molecules: the cracking and reforming of
The gasoline engine. Octane ratings. Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Cracking. Reforming. Isomers. Gasoline additives.
8-10 Our fuels: How long will they last?
Factors in the world’s energy problem. Reserves.
8-10 Our fuels: How long will they last?
Factors in the world’s energy
8-11 The laws of energy: What can we do? What can’t we do?
The first law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics.
8-12 Alternative energy sources: Where do we go from here?
Methanol. Hydrogen. Fuel cells. Mechanical energy from the oceans. Thermal energy from the oceans. Geothermal energy. Oil shale and tar sands. Coal gasification. Solar energy.
CHAPTER 9: CHEMISTRY AND ELECTRICITY
9-1 Chemistry and electricity: an intimate relationship
Kinetic and potential electrical energy. Electrochemical cells. The conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy.
9-2 Oxidation and reduction: the passing and receiving game
Oxidation states. Variable oxidation states. Oxidation and reduction.
9-3 Changing chemical energy to electrical: cells and batteries
Cells and batteries. Recharging batteries.
9-4 Fuel ceils: eliminate the middlemen
Batteries vs. fuel cells. The hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. Muscles and electrochemical potentials.
9-5 Electrolysis: making chemical changes with electricity
Electrolysis. The Hall process. Electrolysis of water. Electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. Electroplating.
9-6 Germicides and bleaches: oxidation! oxidation! we want oxidation!
Oxidizing agents and reducing agents. The halogens as oxidizing agents. Bleaching.
9-7 The photographic process: reduction! reduction! we want reduction!
The photodecomposition of silver halides. Negative and positive Images. The photographic emulsion. The latent Image. Developing the latent image.
CHAPTER 10: GASES, ATMOSPHERES, POLLUTION
10-1 What’s a gas?
The kinetic molecular model. Ideal gases and real gases.
10-2 What gases are like
Properties of gases: mass, volume, temperature, and pressure.
10-3 The gas we live in
Units of air pressure: the torr and the atmosphere. The earth’s atmosphere. Mars’ atmosphere.
10-4 Pushing gases around: the ideal-gas law
How a gas’s volume and pressure are related. How a gas’s pressure and temperature are related. The ideal-gas law.
10-5 Applications of the gas law
Determining the Celsius temperature of absolute zero. Helium-filled balloons.
10-6 Air pollution: a slightly hazy bird’s-eye view
Air pollution disasters. Pollutants.
10-7 Carbon monoxide: the blood spoiler
Carbon monoxide and hemoglobin. Sources of carbon monoxide pollution.
10-8 Nitrogen oxides: the smog makers
Smog. Temperature inversions.
10-9 Hydrocarbons: too much of a natural thing
Natural hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons from gasoline.
10-10 Sulfur dioxide: the most potent pollutant
Compounds of sulfur. Oxides of sulfur. Acid rain.
10-11 Particulates: where there’s smoke, there’s
10-12 Air pollution: summing it up
Sources of various air pollutants. The relative amounts of various air pollutants. The relative hazards of various air pollutants.
10-13 Pollution postscript: a success story
Chlorofluorocarbons. The stratospheric ozone layer.
CHAPTER 11: LIQUIDS, WATER, AND MORE POLLUTION
11-1 Liquids: getting our feet wet
Properties of liquids: pourability, noncompressibility, viscosity, evaporation.
11-2 Volatility: on evaporation, perspiration, and salivation
Molecular kinetic energy distribution. Evaporative cooling. Volatility.
11-3 Vapor pressure: the molecules’desire to fly
Equilibrium vapor pressure. Relative humidity.
11-4 Boiling: when push of vapor pressure comes to shove of atmosphere
Boiling. Effect of pressure on boiling point. Temperature of a liquid during boiling.
11-5 “Liquid gases” and cryogenics
Condensation. Liquid nitrogen. Cryogenics.
11-6 Melting: the breakdown of law and order
Melting points of solids. The heating and cooling curve for water’s changes of state. Heats of fusion and vaporization.
Densities of liquid water and ice. Structure of ice. Evaporation of solids.
Noncrystalline solids. Soda-lime glass. Other glasses.
11-9 Dirty water
Water supply and water usage. Natural purification of water.
11-10 What’s in our water and who put it there?
Germs. Silt and soil. HeaL Radioactivity. Inorganic chemicals and metals. Organic chemicals. Fertilizers and eutrophication.
11-11 Other things to drink
Fermentation. Wines. Beers. Distilled beverages.
11-12 It’s all a matter of amount
Toxicity of ethyl alcohol.
CHAPTER 12: SOLUTIONS
12-1 Kinds of solutions: from nine to seven to three
Solutions. The seven physical types of solutions.
12-2 The dissolving process: How do solutions get that way?
Sources of solution energy: chemical reactions, molecular attractions, and ionic attractions. Crystal energy, hydration energy, and entropy of solution. Electrolysis of aqueous NaCI solution.
12-3 Electrolytes: strong, weak, and non
Strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes. Dissociation.
12-4 Dry cleaners and soaps: What dissolves in what and why?
How oils dissolve in nonpolar solvents. How soaps are made. How soaps work.
12-5 Hard water and synthetic detergents: washday miracles are a dime a dozen
Hard water. Washing soda. Trisodium phosphate. Synthetic detergents.
12-6 Molality of a solution: the proportion of solute to solvent
Concentrated and dilute solutions. Molality. Saturated solutions. Solubilities of various substances.
12-7 Summing up solubility
Solubility vs. electrolyte strength.
12-8 How does adding a solute change the properties of water?
Raising the boiling point. Lowering the freezing point.
12-9 The heat of solution: Monsieur Le Chatelier fixes a flat
Endothermic and exothermic solution processes. Effect of temperature on solubility.
12-10 Osmosis: solvent, si; solute, no
Osmotic pressure. Isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions. Preservation of foods.
12-11 Dialysis: solvent and small solute particles, si; large solute particles, no
The kidneys. Blood dialysis.
12-12 Filtration: solvent and solutes, si; suspended particles, no
What can and cannot be filtered.
12-13 Colloids: What do grape jelly, blue skies, and river deltas have in common?
Colloidal suspensions. Brownian motion. Tyndall effect Common colloids.
12-14 Seawater: What’s in it for us?
Composition of seawater. Minerals from seawater. Desalination.
CHAPTER 13: ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS
13-1 Molarity of a solution: the proportion of solute in the solution
Molarity vs. molality.
13-2 Equilibrium: a not-so-instant replay
Types of equilibrium: chemical reactions, vapor pressure, solubility, osmosis.
13-3 The equilibrium constant: a powerful predictor
The equilibrium constant. Formation equilibria. Solubility equilibria.
13-4 The dissociation of water
Acids. Strong acids. Weak acids. Bases. Strong bases. Weak bases. Water as an acid and a base.
13-5 Salts: sodium chloride and a cast of thousands
13-6 pH: How acid? How basic?
The dissociation constant K„. The pH.
13-7 Hydrolysis: salts aren’t necessarily neutral
Acidic salts. Basic salts.
13-8 The pH’s of all sorts of stuff
Soils. Shampoos. Teeth. Rain.
13-9 Buffers and the body: your basic blood and acid stomach
The pH of blood. Buffers. Antacids.
CHAPTER 14: MATERIALS, PART ONE: SOME NATURAL MATERIALS
14-1 Stuff and things: good or bad?
Using energy to convert resources—into junk?
14-2 The earth’s crust: our one and only stockroom
Composition of the earth’s core, mantle, and crust.
14-3 Silicon and the silicates: Mother Earth’s rock group
Some common minerals. The structures of silicates: quartz, mica, talc, asbestos. Portland cement. Silicones.
14-4 Limestone, coral, seashells, eggshells, pearls, marble sculptures, stalactites, and chalk
How calcium carbonate deposits were formed. Limestone. Marble. Sea shells. Pearls. Stalactites and stalagmites.
14-5 Phosphorus: there’s no living without it
Phosphorus from phosphate rock. Phosphate fertilizers.
14-6 Sulfur: the acid maker
Occurrence of sulfur. Vulcanization of rubber. The sulfur acids and their salts.
14-7 Metals: a matter of importance
The less important metals.
14-8 The lanthanide and actinide elements: If quadruplets is four, what’s the word for fourteen?
Lanthanides. Actinides. Ion exchange. Deionizers. Separation of the lanthanides.
14-9 Titanium and tantalum: the corrosion toilers
Titanium metal. Tantalum metal.
14-10 Manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel: from the ocean bottom to outer space
Meteorites. Manganese nodules. The group 8B elements.
14-11 Other natural materials: et cetera, ad infinitum
Natural and human-made materials. Minerals and elements used in making houses, automobiles, and telephones.
CHAPTER 15: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND THEIR REACTIONS
15-1 The limitless world of organic compounds
Straight chains. Branched chains. Rings. Double and triple bonds. Structural isomerism. Stereoisomerism.
15-2 What do organic chemists do?
Isolation. Structure determination. Synthesis. Physical organic chemistry.
15-3 The hydrocarbons: millions of compounds from just two elements
Types of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon groups. Alkanes. Alkenes. Alkynes. Cyclic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene. Carcinogens.
15-4 Halides: With friends like that, we don’t need enemies!
Functional groups. Chloroform. Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. Pheromones.
15-5 The alcohols: eat, drink, and be wary
Isomeric alcohols. Glycols. Cholesterol.
15-6 The ethers: night-night or bye-bye
Diethyl ether. Epoxides.
15-7 The amines: nature’s bases
The amino group. Organic bases.
15-8 Aldehydes and ketones: the carbonyl sisters
The carbonyl group. Ketones. Aldehydes.
15-9 The carboxylic acids: acidity isn’t just an inorganic game
The carboxyl group. Dissociation of acetic acid. Oxidation of alcohols. Some common carboxylic acids.
15-10 The esters: chemicals can smell good
Esterification. Some common esters. Waxes. Aspirin. Nitroglycerin.
15-11 The amides: there’s good guys and bad guys in every family
15-12 Organic reactions: molecules plus molecules make other molecules
Characteristics of organic reactions. Oxidation and reduction. Condensation and hydrolysis. Transfer reactions. Hydrogenation. Decarboxylation. Rearrangement reactions. Polymerization. Nylon, polyesters, polyurethanes, polyethylene.
15-13 Synthesis: What have you done for me lately?
What the synthetic organic chemist does.
CHAPTER 16: MATERIALS, PART TWO: SOME HUMAN CREATIONS
16-1 Why are we here? a second look
The human-made materials around us.
16-2 Liquid crystals: turning molecules on and off
Properties of liquid crystals. Liquid-crystal thermometers. Liquid-crystal displays.
16-3 Food additives: ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid on rye
Purposes of food additives. Carcinogens, teratogens, and mutagens. Additives in common foods.
16-4 Prescription drugs: the name game
The pharmaceutical industry. Names of drugs. Generic prescriptions. New drugs. Most commonly prescribed drugs.
16-5 Misused drugs from plants
Alkaloids. Morphine. Codeine. Heroin. Marijuana.
16-6 Misused drugs from test tubes
Demerol, Darvon, Talwin, Amphetamines. LSD. PCP. History of drug misuse
16-7 The chemicals we put on our bodies
Antiperspirants and deodorants. Shaving creams. Hair creams. Hair sprays. Cosmetics.
CHAPTER 17: THE MOLECULES OF LIFE
17-1 What’s SO special about life?
Definitions of life.
17-2 Lipids: the fat of the land
Definition of lipid. Fats. Fatty acids. Saturated and unsaturated fats in foods. Phospholipids. Steroids. Prostaglandins.
17-3 Carbohydrates: How sweet (or starchy or tough) it is!
Monosaccharides. Disaccharides. Polysaccharides. The carbon dioxide cycle.
17-4 Proteins: our versatile structural materials
Variety of proteins. Amino acids. Peptides. The major amino acids. Primary,
secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structures.
17-5 What you are is what you eat
Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in foods. Vitamins. Minerals.
CHAPTER 18: THE PROCESSES OF LIFE
18-1 Putting the words to music: what people do for a living
The three essential kinds of life processes.
18-2 ATP: our bodies’ energy currency
Energy from food. ATP.
18-3 Body building: the digestion and metabolism of proteins
Digestion. Absorption. Metabolism. The breakdown of proteins. Neurotransmitters. Endorphins. The amino acid pool.
18-4 Body padding: the digestion and metabolism of fats
Hydrolysis of fats. Storage of fats. Metabolism of fatty acids.
18-5 Body moving: the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates
Breakdown of carbohydrates to monosaccharides. Glucose in the blood. The Krebs cycle.
18-6 Keeping it all going: our enzymes
What enzymes do. How enzymes work. Inhibition of enzymes. Hormones.
18-7 Reproduction: Who’s got the blueprints?
The living cell. Chromosomes. Genes.
18-8 The double helix of DNA: how to Xerox a blueprint
Nucleic acids. The structure of DNA. The replication of DNA. Messenger RNA. Codons. Transfer RNA. The genetic code.
18-9 Hereditary disease: Who broke the Xerox machine?
Genetic diseases. Sickle-cell anemia. Genetic engineering.
18-10 Changing the forms of life: cutting and splicing molecules of DNA
Changing genetic material. Recombinant-DNA procedures. Dangers and control of recombinant-DNA research.
18-11 To the future
Survival of the human species.